landlab

landlab.core.utils module

Some utilities for the landlab package.

Landlab utilities

radians_to_degrees(rads) Convert radians to compass-style degrees.
extend_array(x[, fill]) Extend an array by one element.
as_id_array(array) Convert an array to an array of ids.
make_optional_arg_into_id_array(...) Transform an optional argument into an array of element ids.
get_functions_from_module(mod[, pattern]) Get all the function in a module.
add_functions_to_class(cls, funcs) Add functions as methods of a class.
add_module_functions_to_class(cls, module[, ...]) Add functions from a module to a class as methods.
strip_grid_from_method_docstring(funcs) Remove ‘grid’ from the parameters of a dict of functions’ docstrings.
argsort_points_by_x_then_y(points) Sort points by coordinates, first x then y, returning sorted indices.
sort_points_by_x_then_y(pts) Sort points by coordinates, first x then y.
anticlockwise_argsort_points(pts[, midpt]) Argort points into anticlockwise order around a supplied center.
get_categories_from_grid_methods(grid_type) Create a dict of category:[method_names] for a LL grid type.
add_functions_to_class(cls, funcs)[source]

Add functions as methods of a class.

Parameters:

cls : class

A class.

funcs : dict

Dictionary of function names and instances.

add_module_functions_to_class(cls, module, pattern=None)[source]

Add functions from a module to a class as methods.

Parameters:

cls : class

A class.

module : module

An instance of a module.

pattern : str, optional

Only get functions whose name match a regular expression.

anticlockwise_argsort_points(pts, midpt=None)[source]

Argort points into anticlockwise order around a supplied center.

Sorts CCW from east. Assumes a convex hull.

Parameters:

pts : Nx2 NumPy array of float

(x,y) points to be sorted

midpt : len-2 NumPy array of float (optional)

(x, y) of point about which to sort. If not provided, mean of pts is

used.

Returns:

pts : N NumPy array of int

sorted (x,y) points

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from landlab.core.utils import anticlockwise_argsort_points
>>> pts = np.zeros((4, 2))
>>> pts[:,0] = np.array([-3., -1., -1., -3.])
>>> pts[:,1] = np.array([-1., -3., -1., -3.])
>>> sortorder = anticlockwise_argsort_points(pts)
>>> np.all(sortorder == np.array([2, 0, 3, 1]))
True
anticlockwise_argsort_points_multiline(pts_x, pts_y, out=None)[source]

Argort multi lines of points into CCW order around the geometric center.

This version sorts columns of data in a 2d array. Sorts CCW from east around the geometric center of the points in the row. Assumes a convex hull.

Parameters:

pts_x : rows x n_elements array of float

rows x points_to_sort x x_coord of points

pts_y : rows x n_elements array of float

rows x points_to_sort x y_coord of points

out : rows x n_elements (optional)

If provided, the ID array to be sorted

Returns:

sortorder : rows x n_elements NumPy array of int

sorted (x,y) points

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from landlab.core.utils import anticlockwise_argsort_points_multiline
>>> pts = np.array([[1, 3, 0, 2], [2, 0, 3, 1]])
>>> pts_x = np.array([[-3., -1., -1., -3.], [-3., -1., -1., -3.]])
>>> pts_y = np.array([[-1., -3., -1., -3.], [-3., -1., -3., -1.]])
>>> sortorder = anticlockwise_argsort_points_multiline(
...     pts_x, pts_y, out=pts)
>>> np.all(sortorder == np.array([[2, 0, 3, 1], [1, 3, 0, 2]]))
True
>>> np.all(pts == np.array([[0, 1, 2, 3], [0, 1, 2, 3]]))
True
argsort_points_by_x_then_y(points)[source]

Sort points by coordinates, first x then y, returning sorted indices.

Parameters:

points : tuple of ndarray or ndarray of float, shape (*, 2)

Coordinates of points to be sorted. Sort by first coordinate, then second.

Returns:

ndarray of int, shape (n_points, )

Indices of sorted points.

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from landlab.core.utils import argsort_points_by_x_then_y
>>> points = np.zeros((10, 2))
>>> points[:, 0] = np.array([0., 0., 0.,  1.,  1.,  1.,  1.,  2., 2., 2.])
>>> points[:, 1] = np.array([0., 1., 2., -0.5, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 0., 1., 2.])
>>> argsort_points_by_x_then_y(points)
array([3, 0, 7, 4, 1, 8, 5, 2, 9, 6])
>>> x = [0., 0., 0.,
...      1., 1., 1., 1.,
...      2., 2., 2.]
>>> y = [ 0. , 1. , 2. ,
...      -0.5, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5,
...       0. , 1. , 2.]
>>> indices = argsort_points_by_x_then_y((x, y))
>>> indices
array([3, 0, 7, 4, 1, 8, 5, 2, 9, 6])
>>> argsort_points_by_x_then_y(np.array((x, y)))
array([3, 0, 7, 4, 1, 8, 5, 2, 9, 6])
as_id_array(array)[source]

Convert an array to an array of ids.

Parameters:

array : ndarray

Array of IDs.

Returns:

ndarray

A, possibly new, array of IDs.

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from landlab.core.utils import as_id_array
>>> x = np.arange(5)
>>> y = as_id_array(x)
>>> y
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
>>> x = np.arange(5, dtype=np.int)
>>> y = as_id_array(x)
>>> y
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
>>> x = np.arange(5, dtype=np.int32)
>>> y = as_id_array(x)
>>> y
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
>>> y.dtype == np.int
True
>>> x = np.arange(5, dtype=np.int64)
>>> y = as_id_array(x)
>>> y
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
>>> y.dtype == np.int
True
>>> x = np.arange(5, dtype=np.intp)
>>> y = as_id_array(x)
>>> y
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
>>> y.dtype == np.int
True
extend_array(x, fill=0)[source]

Extend an array by one element.

The new array will appear as a view of the input array. However, its data now points to a newly-allocated buffer that’s one element longer and contains a copy of the contents of x. The last element of the buffer is filled with fill. To access the extended array, use the x attribute of the returned array.

Parameters:

x : ndarray

The array to extend.

fill : number, optional

The value to fill the extra element with.

Returns:

ndarray

A view of the original array with the data buffer extended by one element.

Examples

>>> from landlab.core.utils import extend_array
>>> import numpy as np
>>> arr = extend_array(np.arange(4).reshape((2, 2)))
>>> arr
array([[0, 1],
       [2, 3]])
>>> arr.ext
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 0])

If the array is already extended, don’t extend it more. However, possibly change its fill value.

>>> rtn = extend_array(arr, fill=999)
>>> rtn is arr
True
>>> rtn.ext
array([  0,   1,   2,   3, 999])
get_categories_from_grid_methods(grid_type)[source]

Create a dict of category:[method_names] for a LL grid type.

Looks in the final line of the docstrings of class methods and properties for a catgory declaration, “LLCATS: ”. It then creates and returns a dict with keys found as categories and values that are lists of the names of methods that have that category.

Currently defined LLCATS are:

DEPR : deprecated GINF : information about the grid as a whole NINF : information about nodes LINF : information about links PINF : information about patches CINF : information about cells FINF : information about faces CNINF : information about corners FIELDIO : methods to access and change fields FIELDADD : methods to create new fields/delete old fields FIELDINF : information about fields (keys, names, etc) GRAD : methods for gradients, fluxes, divergences and slopes MAP : methods to map from one element type to another BC : methods to interact with BCs SURF : methods for surface analysis (slope, aspect, hillshade) SUBSET : methods to indentify part of the grid based on conditions CONN : method describing the connectivity of one element to another

(i.e., ‘links_at_node’)
MEAS : method describing a quantity defined on an element (i.e.,
‘length_of_link’)

OTHER : anything else

Parameters:

grid_type : {‘ModelGrid’, ‘RasterModelGrid’, ‘HexModelGrid’,

‘RadialModelGrid’, ‘VoronoiDelaunayGrid’}

String of raster to inspect.

Returns:

cat_dict : dict

Dictionary with cats as keys and lists of method name strings as values.

grid_dict : dict

Dictionary with method name strings as keys and lists of cats as values.

FAILS : dict of dicts

contains any problematic LLCAT entries. Keys: ‘MISSING’ - list of names of any public method or property without an LLCAT declared.

get_functions_from_module(mod, pattern=None)[source]

Get all the function in a module.

Parameters:

mod : module

An instance of a module.

pattern : str, optional

Only get functions whose name match a regular expression.

Returns:

dict

Dictionary of functions contained in the module. Keys are the function names, values are the functions themselves.

make_optional_arg_into_id_array(number_of_elements, *args)[source]

Transform an optional argument into an array of element ids.

Many landlab functions an optional argument of element ids that tells the function to operate only on the elements provided. However, if the argument is absent, all of the elements are to be operated on. This is a convenience function that converts such an arguments list into an array of elements ids.

Parameters:

number_of_elements : int

Number of elements in the grid.

array : array_like

Iterable to convert to an array.

Returns:

ndarray

Input array converted to a numpy array, or a newly-created numpy array.

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from landlab.core.utils import make_optional_arg_into_id_array
>>> make_optional_arg_into_id_array(4)
array([0, 1, 2, 3])
>>> make_optional_arg_into_id_array(4, [0, 0, 0, 0])
array([0, 0, 0, 0])
>>> make_optional_arg_into_id_array(4, (1, 1, 1, 1))
array([1, 1, 1, 1])
>>> make_optional_arg_into_id_array(4, np.ones(4))
array([1, 1, 1, 1])
>>> make_optional_arg_into_id_array(4, 0)
array([0])
>>> make_optional_arg_into_id_array(4, np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]))
array([1, 2, 3, 4])
radians_to_degrees(rads)[source]

Convert radians to compass-style degrees.

Convert angles (measured counter-clockwise from the positive x-axis) in radians to angles in degrees measured clockwise starting from north.

Parameters:

rads : float or ndarray

Angles in radians.

Returns:

degrees : float or ndarray

Converted angles in degrees.

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from landlab.core.utils import radians_to_degrees
>>> radians_to_degrees(0.)
90.0
>>> radians_to_degrees(np.pi / 2.)
0.0
>>> radians_to_degrees(- 3 * np.pi / 2.)
0.0
>>> radians_to_degrees(np.array([- np.pi, np.pi]))
array([ 270.,  270.])
sort_points_by_x_then_y(pts)[source]

Sort points by coordinates, first x then y.

Parameters:

pts : Nx2 NumPy array of float

(x,y) points to be sorted

Returns:

pts : Nx2 NumPy array of float

sorted (x,y) points

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from landlab.core.utils import sort_points_by_x_then_y
>>> pts = np.zeros((10, 2))
>>> pts[:,0] = np.array([0., 0., 0., 1., 1., 1., 1., 2., 2., 2.])
>>> pts[:,1] = np.array([0., 1., 2., -0.5, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 0., 1., 2.])
>>> pts = sort_points_by_x_then_y(pts)
>>> pts
array([[ 1. , -0.5],
       [ 0. ,  0. ],
       [ 2. ,  0. ],
       [ 1. ,  0.5],
       [ 0. ,  1. ],
       [ 2. ,  1. ],
       [ 1. ,  1.5],
       [ 0. ,  2. ],
       [ 2. ,  2. ],
       [ 1. ,  2.5]])
strip_grid_from_method_docstring(funcs)[source]

Remove ‘grid’ from the parameters of a dict of functions’ docstrings.

Note that the docstring must be close to numpydoc standards for this to work.

Parameters:

funcs : dict

Dictionary of functions to modify. Keys are the function names, values are the functions themselves.

Examples

>>> from landlab.grid.mappers import dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification as dummy_func
>>> funcs = {'dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification':
...          dummy_func}
>>> help(dummy_func)
Help on function dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification in module landlab.grid.mappers:

dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification(grid, some_arg)
    A dummy function to demonstrate automated docstring changes.

    Construction::

        dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification(grid, some_arg)

    Parameters
    ----------
    grid : ModelGrid
        A Landlab modelgrid.
    some_arg : whatever
        A dummy argument.

    Examples
    --------
    ...

>>> strip_grid_from_method_docstring(funcs)
>>> help(dummy_func)
Help on function dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification in module landlab.grid.mappers:

dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification(grid, some_arg)
    A dummy function to demonstrate automated docstring changes.

    Construction::

        grid.dummy_func_to_demonstrate_docstring_modification(some_arg)

    Parameters
    ----------
    some_arg : whatever
        A dummy argument.

    Examples
    --------
    ...